Optimizing Personal & Professional Performance

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Optimizing Personal & Professional Performance - Sleep

According to a study conducted by RAND and reported in SmallBizDaily and Tuck, people who sleep 7.5-8 hours per night tend to earn $2,280 of more productive hours, an equivalent of 11 days, than those who sleep less than 5 hours per night.


  • Chronic sleep deprivation is linked with a host of serious health issues, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
  • Sleep has found to be critical to a person's overall well-being and performance.
  • A good night’s sleep has been found to be an ideal form of therapy; it can help people deal with, manage, and sort out emotions.
  • It even has the potential to reduce some cognitive biases, such as fear and negativity.
  • A lack of sleep has a direct, negative impact on a person’s body, mind, and spirit, also affecting emotions, temperament, and self-control.
  • Sufficient sleep generally makes people more relaxed, less anxious, appear more attractive, and it lowers food cravings.
  • With adequate sleep, one's body can perform better and has the ability to recover faster.
  • We look better, feel better and make better decisions when we are well-rested.
  • At Harvard Medical School, the Division of Sleep Medicine reported that persistent sleep issues are also linked to long-term mood disorders, including depression, anxiety, and mental distress.
  • Lack of sleep affects the immune system, inflammation, cholesterol, metabolism and the hormones that regulate appetite, according to University of Helsinki researchers.
  • Leptin, an appetite-suppressing hormone that helps improve weight control, is at a high level among people who sleep eight hours per night.
  • The University of Chicago researchers found physical changes from loss of sleep mimic those of aging, including decreases in memory and learning functions.
  • When sleep is deprived, people become exhausted sooner because the body is trying to conserve energy.


  • In a study conducted by RAND, it was determined that insufficient sleep directly leads to 1.2 million missed days of work a year in America. RAND found out that it cost the US economy a staggering $411 billion a year. That’s 2.28% of the nation’s entire GDP.
  • On an individual level, that translates to 11 lost days of productivity and $2,280 in lost wages each year.
  • Workers who get enough sleep have a healthier immune system, better cognitive function, more energy, and improved memory, attentiveness, alertness, and performance all throughout the day.
  • They are better able to acquire and perfect new skills, connect new information with current knowledge, and manage pain as the analgesic aspects of sleep increase pain thresholds.
  • Moreover, and perhaps of most interest to organizations, increased sleep tends to cause individuals to be happier, more engaged, and more creative.
  • In a study, 72% of managers noted the difficulty in concentrating due to a lack of sleep.
  • Results indicate that the executive control functions of decision-making, creativity, processing, adaptability, learning, and control of emotions, performed by the pre-frontal cortex within the brain, are all highly impacted by sleep loss.
  • From an organizational perspective, a lack of sleep often has a direct impact on workplace performance.
  • People’s ability to learn, concentrate and retain information is greatly impacted by how well-rested they are.
  • Insufficient sleep causes individuals to be more emotionally unstable, or moody and has been tied to aggression.
  • Nearly half of Americans report that low-quality or insufficient sleep interferes with their daily work life at least once a week. Sleep deprivation makes us 20-30% more prone to error, procrastination, or the sluggishness that blocks our creativity.
  • Workers with insomnia or insufficient sleep experienced the steepest productivity losses.
  • Lack of sleep makes us overly sensitive and unable to empathize with others in the workplace.
  • People’s ability to learn, concentrate, and retain information is greatly impacted by how well-rested they are.
  • Sleep loss makes workers spend nearly three times as much of their day on just time management alone. Sleep-deprived workers were also less motivated and had difficulty focusing, remembering things, and making good decisions.

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Optimizing Personal & Professional Performance - Meditation

In 2015, the market size of the meditation and mindfulness industry was about $1 billion. In 2016, about 25% of employers offered mindfulness training to their employees while based on a survey from Fidelity Investments and the National Business Group on Health, that percentage could climb this year to nearly 50%. According to a study that involved 239 employees of an American insurance company, meditation practice was responsible for improved physical health, increased work productivity and lowered occupational risks.

Impact Of Meditation/ Mindfulness on Personal and Business Performance of an Entrepreneur/ Business

Effect Of Meditation/ Mindfulness on Employees and Their Work Performance:

  • The results of a research study conducted that surveyed 30,665 patients who had undergone meditation practice revealed that they were significantly predictive of work engagement, subjective to job performance, and had improved job satisfaction.
  • The results indicated that meditation practice may positively influence job performance, including job satisfaction, subjective job performance, and work engagement.
  • A 12-week pilot study that involved 239 employees of an American insurance company, in which 96 participants were randomly assigned to the mindfulness group, 90 to the yoga-based meditation group, and 53 to the control group also sort to reveal the impact of meditation on employee performance.
  • The mindfulness group underwent 14 hours of training for stress management over 12 weeks and 2 hours of intensive training at the 10th week, together with 5 to 15 minutes assigned for daily home practice. 45 participants in the yoga-based meditation group received a handout only, while the other half of this group received a handout and a digital video disc for learning the program.
  • A baseline measurement was taken, as well as a post test within two weeks of the final class, reporting amelioration of sleep quality and autonomic balance within the intervention groups.
  • Their improved physical health increased work productivity and lowered occupational risks.
  • As published by Life in 2016, meditation benefits have also been proven to help resolve workplace conflicts.
  • Mindfulness practices equip employees with better conflict management and interpersonal skills that make resolving issues easier for employees and managers alike.
  • According to Fortune, the meditation and mindfulness industry was worth about $1 billion in 2015.
  • In that year, about 25% of employers offered mindfulness training to their employees.
  • Meditation is a fast-growing industry. In 2018 meditation services are expected to generate $1.15 billion to the US economy.
  • A new comprehensive analysis of mindfulness research, co-directed by a management scientist at Case Western Reserve University, suggests that injecting a "corporate culture of mindfulness not only improves focus but the ability to manage stress while enabling employees work together.
  • Mindfulness meditation, in particular, has captured the attention of business leaders, U.S. Congressmen, military commanders, and professional sports teams. There is also a growing list of companies that have adopted mindfulness practices into their stress reduction programs, including Google, Apple, Facebook, LinkedIn, Intel, Aetna, General Mills, Blackrock, Green Mountain Coffee, and Eileen Fisher.
  • According to a 2016 review by David Creswell of Carnegie Mellon University, based on some of the most reliable studies mindfulness can help with depression, pain management, and substance abuse outcomes.
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Optimizing Personal & Professional Performance - Exercise

There are limited academic articles or scholarly publications that focus on the correlation between regular exercise among entrepreneurs and their business performance. The impact of regular exercise on the personal performance of entrepreneurs and their business include an increase in creativity and concentration, and a boost in problem-solving skills, etc. There is insufficient information available to the public comparing the earnings of entrepreneurs who do exercise frequently to those who don't.


  • Exercise controls weight and keeps the participants (including entrepreneurs) healthier.
  • Several studies reveal that an increase in creativity, concentration, as well as a boost in personal problem-solving skills, etc., are associated with entrepreneurs that engage in regular exercise.
  • Exercise is known to combat health conditions as well as diseases like heart disease, high blood pressure, etc. Exercising regularly boosts high-density in lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. HDL is known as the "good" cholesterol and lowers unhealthy triglycerides.
  • Exercise keeps the blood flowing smoothly and decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
  • Entrepreneurs that exercise multiple times a week are mentally sharp and also operate with improved focus when compared to those who do not exercise regularly.
  • Exercising regularly helps entrepreneurs to develop a "laser-like focus and attention."
  • Not consistently exercising does not only affect individual health. It also affects relationships.
  • Regular exercise fights several adverse health conditions such or reduces the occurrence of stroke metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, depression, anxiety, several types of cancer, arthritis, and falls.
  • Exercising together can help improve the connection with family or friends as well as others in a social setting.
  • Regular exercise is known to boost mood and improve the sexual life of people.
  • Branson, a famous billionaire, reveals that he would not have been so successful and happy in his personal life without the importance he has placed on his health and fitness.
  • A journal of the US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health reveals that physical activities (exercise) improve cognition in adults.
  • About "7% increase in aerobic fitness" is noticed among people who adhere to exercise for a period of three months regularly.
  • The Journal of Business Venturing reveals that sleep combined with a mindfulness exercise, is known to lower entrepreneurs' exhaustion.


  • Entrepreneurs that have launched multi-billion dollar businesses and companies reveal that regular exercise happens to be an "integral part of their success."
  • Not consistently exercising does not only affect the health. It also affects businesses.
  • Multi-billion-dollar-worth entrepreneurs like Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, Richard Branson, and Tim Cook all have in one thing in common and its regular exercise. This suggests that regular exercise may have a suitable impact on the performance of entrepreneurs/businesses.
  • Branson, a popular billionaire, reveals that he would not have been so successful in his career without the importance he has placed on his health and fitness.


Our research team scoured through scholarly and academic publications such as Harvard Business School publications and the National Academy of Management in Seattle, etc., for insights into the impact of regular exercise on the personal performance and business performance of entrepreneurs. We studied statistics on the correlation between regular exercise among entrepreneurs and their business performance. Unfortunately, no recent academic publication featured this information. As a triangulation attempt, we researched the various personality traits entrepreneurs exhibit and the impact/contribution of each personality trait to their success or failure in business. We assumed that the personality traits of entrepreneurs would assess their healthy life and fitness activities. This strategy failed to uncover the information required. The Harvard Business School publication revealed that gaps exist between the "theory of personality traits" among entrepreneurs and how such personality traits can be measured in practice. We expanded our scope to study publications older than the usual 24-month credibility range, but this strategy was also futile. A National Academy of Management study revealed that rigorous exercise is associated with goal attainment in surveyed small business owners.

We also scoured through survey reports and interviews conducted among credible entrepreneurs like Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, Richard Branson, and Tim Cook, among other successful entrepreneurs by Obelo web, etc. We studied for insights into the amount of time they have dedicated to regular exercise and how they reveal that this dedication impacts their personal and business performance. Unfortunately, such information is not made available to the public. An Oberlo web publication revealed that several successful entrepreneurs admit that regular exercise has become an "integral part of their success." The study further revealed that regularly exercising increases creativity and concentration. We researched the hour of daily exercise entrepreneurs like Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, Richard Branson, and Tim Cook dedicate to regular exercise. We also investigated the number of hours less successful/failed entrepreneurs frequently use for regular exercise. We intended to calculate the various percentages of daily hours committed to exercise by the two groups and present the data. Unfortunately, statistics on most entrepreneurs uncovered failed to reveal the actual number of hours they use daily for exercise. We assumed that they are not under any obligation to disclose their daily routines.

We studied through business news publications such as Forbes, etc., for insights into what the employee of successful companies and unsuccessful companies reveal about the exercise lives of their founders, staff, associated business executives, enterprisers, speculators, tycoons, magnates, etc. We studied for insights into the number of hours/days per week company entrepreneurs engage in exercise during work hours or away from work. We assumed that some of these entrepreneurs might be exercising at their work locations. Unfortunately, no such information was uncovered. Forbes revealed that some companies pay their employees to engage in exercise at work. The article did not explain whether entrepreneurs are also among those paid to exercise at work. We tried to identify other companies that pay their employees/entrepreneurs to engage in exercise activities at work and those whose employees/entrepreneurs are not allowed to do so. We intended to verify the success of the companies and their entrepreneurs for a comparison. Such detailed information is not available to the public, and we could not continue this triangulation attempt.

We studied through professional publications on entrepreneurship such as the Entrepreneur Magazine. We researched for creative exercise strategies that successful vs. less successful entrepreneurs implement and how the various strategies affect their personal as well as business performance. We studied for the number of weekly, daily, or similar metric in hours that successful/less-successful entrepreneurs dedicate to strategic exercise activities. We researched for strategic exercise activities implemented by entrepreneurs. These include walking to meetings, using a treadmill desk, walking while in a meeting, etc., and how these are practiced differently among successful and less successful entrepreneurs. Forbes revealed the exercise strategies entrepreneurs can use to get it right; it did not give insights into any statistics. We could not also proceed with this attempt to triangulate helpful statistics.

We researched through scholarly journals such as Researchgate, for the benefits of physical exercise among entrepreneurs that engage in exercise on a regular basis. Insights obtained from the American College of Sports Medicine publication revealed that approximately "7% increase in aerobic fitness" is experienced by people who adhere to exercising regularly for a period of three months.
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Optimizing Personal & Professional Performance - Peer Group

Research around participation in peer groups suggests that they have a positive impact not only on business performance but on an individual's personal performance. Unfortunately, there is limited research in this area. Several generalizations and assumptions can be applied, however further quantitative studies are required before a definitive answer is reached. In terms of business performance, improved revenues, profits, and growth have been seen when there is a solid peer group. On a personal level, peer groups have been seen to positively impact health, personal growth and relationships, and finances.



  • The study concluded that the peer groups helped the owner-managers overcome gaps in knowledge that could only be learned through experience, and this contributed to the positive results. 
  • 2012 study found that when a business had good peer support programs in place, the participants were more likely to remain in their employment. High employee turnover impacts on the financial performance of a business, so the flow-on effect of improved employee retention through peer groups ultimately results in better business performance.


  • A survey by Oracle of European Workers found that 42% of the participants considered the biggest influence on their level of engagement at work was their peers. Employee engagement has flow-on effects in terms of company productivity and success.



  • The Ontario Initiative showed participants who actively engaged in peer support groups were significantly more likely to obtain jobs, remain in jobs and have improved their personal finances. Those participants that remained involved in the peer groups longer and invested more in the process experienced fewer and less severe mental health problems
  • 2013 study expanded on the conclusions of a 2008 study considering the use of peer groups and interventions to reduce the effects of ill health in employment. As a "preventative strategy", the groups were found to reduce the sick leave taken by participants which suggest improved levels of health. Absenteeism decreased by 7% in the group which participated in peer support groups while it increased by 7% in the control group. 
  • 2008 study considered peer groups and support as a means of preventing stress and burnout in physicians. The study found significant positive effects such as reduced exhaustiondepression, and anxiety among those who participated in the groups. Long term effects of participation were also evident with increased professional development and ongoing workplace participation. The cautious inference drawn by the authors was that peer groups assist career progression, although they suggest further research is needed to definitively confirm this. 


  • The quantitative findings in the Ontario initiative were supported by the qualitative side of the research and concluded that ongoing long term peer groups are associated with ongoing education and employment and an overall improvement in personal performance.
  • summary of qualitative studies found that participants in peer groups found them valuable, especially in terms of adopting coping strategies. This had flow-on effects in both their personal lives — health outcomes, family life and financial situation, and their professional lives — job retention and career development and progression. 


A search of scholarly articles and business and industry publications revealed that very little research had been done in this area, particularly concerning the US and within the requested time frame. What little information or research that was available was hidden behind paywalls, and while the abstracts of various articles provided some good generalizations, they were not sufficient to draw concrete conclusions. We also searched the various professional groups and companies that provide services of this nature. They provided significant information regarding the type of peer group support available but little information on how participation translated into business and personal performance.

In an attempt to overcome these issues, we included research on the efficacy and impact of peer groups in an academic setting, particularly students studying business and entrepreneurship. The expectation was some of this research could be applied to the business setting, given these students will become the future business leaders and entrepreneurs. Unfortunately, paywalls and the inability to draw solid conclusions based on abstracts alone meant that this yielded few useful sources of information.

We also attempted to focus on groups that had experienced poor personal performance outcomes as a result of personal factors such as poor health. We hoped conclusions could be drawn regarding personal performance and business performance if these groups subsequently engaged in peer groups. While this yielded some results, the difficulty was finding credible articles focusing on the US published within the required time frame.

Unfortunately, the research focus on the US and the time frame for publications resulted in almost no relevant articles. Attempts to triangulate the information and make assumptions based on these findings that could be applied to the research topic were unsuccessful.

Given this, we needed to expand our research criteria and include articles written outside of the requested time frame. When considering this research, we have given greater weight to the articles published closer to the requested time frame. The issue of paywalls again created problems, and we needed to rely on publications that summarized the information to overcome this issue.

Attempts to focus the research on the US also proved fruitless. We have included studies from Canada and Europe on the basis there are cultural similarities in these groups. This means a number of the conclusions drawn in these studies could equally be applied to the US. We have also included a Chinese study, despite the fact there are some cultural differences between the US and China. The findings were included because it was the only publicly available study that provided quantitative findings in respect of the impact peer groups have on business performance. On this basis, we felt it was relevant to the question at hand.

Finally, we also included a study involving peer groups and personal performance in relation to physicians. This group experiences poor personal performance outcomes. The impact of peer groups on this poor performing group is significant. Given this, we felt that some general assumptions could be made regarding the study findings. These findings carried some weight that could be applied to business professionals and entrepreneurs.
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Optimizing Personal & Professional Performance - Intimate Relationship

After a thorough research, we were unable to determine how do happy intimate relationships impact personal performance and business performance of entrepreneurs/businesses. However, we were able to find insightful data that suggests that quality sleep, meditation practices, regular exercising, social peer groups, and intimate relationships have a high impact on the personal performance and business performance of entrepreneurs/businesses.

Early Findings


  • A study published in 2017 found that sleep quality have both positive and negative effects on a person Sleep quality was measured based on the factors of subjective quality, restfulness, ease of falling asleep, ease of waking, and feeling rested. The results revealed that good sleep quality enables people to better deal with stress, while poor sleep quality "worsens the negative outcomes associated with stress by making an individual cognitively, emotionally, and physiologically more vulnerable to stressful events."
  • The study found that better sleep quality predicted better positive effects between individuals and lower negative effects overall.
  • According to the study, sleep quality and quantity both have major impacts on "employee performance, safety, health, and attitudes."


  • One study on mindfulness and leadership in Australia found that there was a positive relationship between being mindful, "leadership self‐mastery and leadership organizational‐transformation."
  • Additionally, another study that looked at the possible connection between mindfulness in IT and the reduction of technostress revealed that mindfulness is the gateway to reducing incidences related to technostress.


  • A study of 80 executives that wanted to confirm how exercising and fitness can boost work performance found that exercises had a "22% increase in fitness and a 70% improvement in the ability to make complex decisions compared to sedentary peers."
  • One of the reasons for this may be that exercise improves blood flow which can, in turn, improve neurological function.
  • Total Wellness allows employees to exercise for 30 minutes each workday as they observe the benefits.
  • According to Forbes, some areas that show improvement in exercising include social connections, stress relief, heart health, energy, weight management, and productivity.

Peer Groups

  • A study published in late 2017 found that companies that developed relationships between coworkers increased revenue, profits, and management score, among other metrics.

Intimate Relationships

  • While the initial research regarding a study that was meant to reveal the relationship between intimate relationship and business performance the research suggested that the people who surround a person will impact business success since people often rub off on each other.



  • According to an article by HuffPost, people who are happy and report high life satisfaction tend to be healthier.
  • The American Psychological Association published research in which they stated that having a happy partner could be good for the people's health among middle-aged and older adults (aged 50 to 94.)
  • According to the research people with happy spouses were much more likely to report better health over time.
  • Happy partners likely provide stronger social support compared to unhappy partners.
  • Being with a happy partner should make a person’s life better in general.

Less stress

Better Healing

  • According to research, single patients that are in a healthy relationship are three times more likely to survive the first three months after surgery.

Healthier Behaviors

  • There is a high chance to follow a healthy lifestyle if an individual is in a relationship because their partner is more likely to influence their habits positively. (i.e. quit smoking, etc).

Greater Sense of Purpose

Longer Life

Impact Of Happy Intimate Relationships on the Business Performance Of an Entrepreneur/Business.

Healthier Lives

Growth and Innovation

  • A report by Entrepreneur indicates that authentic business relationships stimulate growth and innovation, while advancing commerce and benefits all.
  • The MHA’s Work Health Survey revealed that unhealthy relationships in the workspace produce unhappiness in the workspace resulting in low productivity and intentions to quit.
  • According to the survey, "73% of employees experienced isolation because of a hostile work environment, with 63% stating that work stress negatively affected their mental and physical health. Not surprisingly, 71% of employees reported speaking poorly of their organization (including boss and co-workers) and wanting to leave their jobs."
  • Besides, social interactions with coworkers boost the sharing of new ideas and providing feedback, resulting in good communication with teamwork that could lead to encouraging them to collaborate and communicate with each other.
  • Collaborative and communicative teamwork has been found to work more efficiently.

Job satisfaction

  • The benefits of good working relationships include a higher level of innovation and creativity, the ability to focus on opportunities, good work relationships, high level of cooperation and they are more likely to accept changes in the organization.

Research Strategy:

We began the research to determine how do happy intimate relationships impact personal performance and business performance of entrepreneurs/businesses by scanning through reputable media databases such as Forbes, Inc., Entrepreneur, CB Insights, and others. We were hoping that this strategy would help us to determine how do happy intimate relationships impact personal performance and business performance of entrepreneurs/businesses. However, although we were able to find quantitative data about the impact of healthy relationships and the benefits, the results obtained did not focus on the entrepreneur benefits and did not provide any hard data or statistics,

Next, we extended our research through academic and research studies and reports on authoritative databases such as Research Gate and EBSCO among others. Unfortunately, we were not able to find any relevant data specific to the subject under investigation.

Finally, we decided to search for quantitative and/or qualitative data on reports or studies on the impact of happy intimate relationships on personal and business performance of an entrepreneur/business by scanning through health institutes databases such as the American Psychological Association, Northwestern Medicine or Science Direct. Unfortunately, this strategy was not fruitful either. We have detailed the helpful findings that we were able to obtain in our research on the helpful findings section of the brief.

Did this report spark your curiosity?


From Part 03
  • "1. Exercise controls weight Exercise can help prevent excess weight gain or help maintain weight loss. When you engage in physical activity, you burn calories. The more intense the activity, the more calories you burn. Regular trips to the gym are great, but don't worry if you can't find a large chunk of time to exercise every day. Any amount of activity is better than none at all. To reap the benefits of exercise, just get more active throughout your day — take the stairs instead of the elevator or rev up your household chores. Consistency is key."
  • "2. Exercise combats health conditions and diseases Worried about heart disease? Hoping to prevent high blood pressure? No matter what your current weight is, being active boosts high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the "good" cholesterol, and it decreases unhealthy triglycerides. This one-two punch keeps your blood flowing smoothly, which decreases your risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular exercise helps prevent or manage many health problems and concerns, including: Stroke Metabolic syndrome High blood pressure Type 2 diabetes Depression Anxiety Many types of cancer Arthritis Falls"
  • "It can also help improve cognitive function and helps lower the risk of death from all causes."
  • "3. Exercise improves mood Need an emotional lift? Or need to blow off some steam after a stressful day? A gym session or brisk walk can help. Physical activity stimulates various brain chemicals that may leave you feeling happier, more relaxed and less anxious. You may also feel better about your appearance and yourself when you exercise regularly, which can boost your confidence and improve your self-esteem."
  • "4. Exercise boosts energy Winded by grocery shopping or household chores? Regular physical activity can improve your muscle strength and boost your endurance. Exercise delivers oxygen and nutrients to your tissues and helps your cardiovascular system work more efficiently. And when your heart and lung health improve, you have more energy to tackle daily chores."
  • "7. Exercise can be fun … and social! Exercise and physical activity can be enjoyable. They give you a chance to unwind, enjoy the outdoors or simply engage in activities that make you happy. Physical activity can also help you connect with family or friends in a fun social setting. So take a dance class, hit the hiking trails or join a soccer team. Find a physical activity you enjoy, and just do it. Bored? Try something new, or do something with friends or family."
  • "Bill Gates, Richard Branson, Mark Zuckerberg, and Tim Cook. Can you guess what they all have in common? If you guessed that they all launched multi-billion dollar companies, you’re correct. But we want to talk about something else that they all have in common. They all swear that regular exercise is an integral part of their success."
  • "In fact, in a recent blog post Branson said: “I seriously doubt that I would have been as successful in my career (and happy in my personal life) if I hadn’t always placed importance on my health and fitness.” Science backs this idea too. Studies show that regular exercise can improve your mental health, your memory, your energy levels, and make you feel happier overall."
  • "Exercising Increases Your Creativity and Concentration"
  • "Turns out that those happiness hormones aren’t just great for increasing your energy levels – they’re also great for getting your creative juices flowing. Once you’ve finished your workout you’ll be primed to tackle tasks which require creativity, and you’ll have the energy to follow them through to completion. But it isn’t just after a workout when you’ll notice a spike in creativity – you’ll likely notice that you’re much more focussed during your workouts too."
  • "American College of Sports Medicine [47], a ~7% increase in aerobic fitness is expected following the adherence of exercise prescriptions over a three month period"
  • "This survey has repeatedly surfaced gaps between the theory of personality traits and how we can measure them, with our empirical tools frequently falling short of being able to disentangle complex and overlapping psychological traits to assign causal roles. "
  • "The literature is often unclear as to whether individuals with a given set of personality traits selected into entrepreneurship, or whether individuals developed the traits endogenously after becoming entrepreneurs. The increasing availability of detailed longitudinal information on demographic characteristics of entrepreneurs, including their human and financial capital endowments, as well as on entrepreneurial environments (regions and ecosystems) provides an opportunity to reduce both heterogeneity and endogeneity in studies of entrepreneurial traits. "
  • "Our study addresses the issue by examining the exercise regimens of 366 small business owners and the relationship of exercise frequency with the company's sales and the entre‐ preneur's personal goals. Specifically, this study examines the relationship that two types of exercise—running and weightlifting—have with sales volume, extrinsic rewards, and intrinsic rewards. Results indicate that running is related positively to all three outcome variables while weightlifting is related positively to extrinsic and intrinsic rewards but not to sales. "